When measuring the body for apparel design and production, it is necessary to have a few key landmarks of which to measure to and from. There are two types of body landmarks, those that are actual points on the body and those that are horizontal circumferencesaround the body. We use both when measuring body dimensions. The key body landmarksused in this guide are illustrated in Sketches 1.1 and 1.2. A further explanation of those landmarks is as follows:

1. Top of Head • The crown of the head.

2. C.F. Neck • (Center Front Neck):The hollow “pit of the neck” locat-ed between the clavicles (collar bones) at the base of the front neck.

3. C.B. Neck • (Center Back Neck):The bone at the base of the backneck which protrudes when you tilt your head forward.This is thecervicale or 7th cervical vertebrae.

4. H.P.S. • (High Point of Shoulder):The point where the shouldermeets the neck at the base of the side of the neck.

5. Shoulder • The point between where the clavicle (collar bone) ends,you can feel a “knob” there and the outside upper edge of theacromion (shoulder bone).This point feels like an indentation on thearm side of that “knob.” If your finger is at the shoulder point and thearm is raised,the finger does not raise,if your finger comes up withthe arm,then your shoulder point is too far onto the arm.

6. Bust • (in Women’s wear) or Chest • (in Men’s wear and Children’s wear):The horizontal line at the fullest point of the bust or chest, which typically goes over the shoulder blades, under the arms and across the nipples.

7.Waist • The horizontal line at the natural waist, which is the narrowest point around the torso, below the bottom rib and above the hip bones.

8. Hip • The horizontal line at the widest point of the hip, typically across the fullest part of the buttocks and over the upper end of the thigh bone.

9. Crotch • The base of the torso at its center point between the legs.

10. Knee • The horizontal line which goes over the protruding bone at the inside of the knee and across the kneecap.

11. Ankle • The horizontal line that goes across the inside ankle’s most prominent point.

12. Floor • The soles of the feet.

The key body landmark locations and horizontal points, identified above, will be used together and in conjunction with other body points to make all of the measurements used in this handbook. Happy measuring!

Illustrated and Written by Andrea Kennedy of